Cherenkov radiation is electromagnetic radiation emitted as a charged particle passes through a dielectric at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light (c/n) in that medium. Diamond’s high refractive index creates a potential for smaller, lighter and more sensitive Cherenkov detectors for harsh environments.
Applications for terahertz radiation are being developed in rapid pharmaceutical screening, non-invasive detection of hidden objects, non-destructive imaging of defects, and medical diagnostics. Diamond has great potential as a material in higher power terahertz radiation sources because of its very low loss tangent, its transparency in the terahertz spectrum and fabrication methods that enable the fine features needed.
Diamond is gaining wider acceptance as an active material for solid-state radiation detection. Its high displacement energy makes it robust in harsh environments and its high band gap enables for low noise/low voltage applications. One example has diamond as a neutron detector for fluence and profile monitoring in fission and fusion applications.